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Format: 2019

Academic Articles

Measuring Investment in Education. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 10(4), Fall 1996, pp. 9-30.
Interpreting Recent Research on Schooling in Developing Countries. World Bank Research Observer, 10(2), August 1995, pp. 227-246.
Outcomes, Costs, and Incentives in Schools. In Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy, National Research Council, Improving the Performance of America’s Schools, Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1995, pp. 28-51.
The Quest for Equalized Mediocrity: School Finance Reform without Consideration of School Performance. In Lawrence O. Picus and James L. Wattenbarger (ed.), Where Does the Money Go? Resource Allocation in Elementary and Secondary Schools, Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 1996, pp. 20-43.
A Jaundiced View of "Adequacy" in School Finance Reform. Educational Policy, 8(4), December 1994, pp. 460-69.
The Causes and Consequences of Grade Repetition: Evidence from Brazil. (with João Batista Gomes-Neto) . Economic Development and Cultural Change, 43(1), October 1994, pp. 117-148.
Education Production Functions. In Torsten Husén and T. Neville Postlethwaite (ed.), International Encyclopedia of Education, 2nd Edition, Volume 3, Oxford: Pergamon, 1994, pp. 1756-1762.
Improving Educational Outcomes While Controlling Costs. (with Steven G. Rivkin and Dean T. Jamison) . Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy 37, December 1992, pp. 205-238.
Reforming Educational Reform. (with John E. Chubb). In Henry Aaron (ed.). Setting National Priorities , Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1990, pp. 213-247.
The Impact of Differential Expenditures on School Performance. Educational Researcher, 18(4), May 1989, pp. 45-51.
Improving Educational Efficiency in Developing Countries: What Do We Know?. (with Marlaine E. Lockheed). Compare, 18(1), 1988, pp. 21-37.
The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools. Journal of Economic Literature, 49(3), September 1986, pp. 1141-1177.
Throwing Money at Schools. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 1(1), Autumn 1981, pp. 19-41.
Education Policy Research-An Industry Perspective. Economics of Education Review, 1(2), 1981, pp. 193-224.
Conceptual and Empirical Issues in the Estimation of Educational Production Functions. The Journal of Human Resources, 14(3), Summer 1979, pp. 351-388.
The High Cost of Graduate Education in the Military. Public Policy, 21(4), 1973, pp. 525-552.
On the Value of 'Equality of Educational Opportunity' as a Guide to Public Policy. (with John F. Kain). In Frederick Mosteller and Daniel P. Moynihan (ed.). On Equality of Educational Opportunity, (New York: Random House), 1972, pp. 116-145.