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Format: 2020

Academic Articles

Budgets, Priorities, and Investment in Human Capital. In Marvin H. Kosters (ed.), Financing College Tuition: Government Policies and Educational Priorities, Washington, DC AEI Press, 1999, pp. 8-27.
Understanding the 20th Century Growth in U.S. School Spending. (with Steven G. Rivkin) . Journal of Human Resources, 31(1), Winter 1997, pp. 34-68.
Assessing the Effects of School Resources on Student Performance: An Update. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19(2), Summer 1997, pp. 141-164.
Health and Schooling: Evidence and Policy Implications for Developing Countries. (with João Batista Gomes-Neto, Raimundo Hélio Leite, and Roberto Cláudio Frota-Bezzera) . Economics of Education Review, 16(3), June 1997, pp. 271-282.
Applying Performance Incentives to Schools for Disadvantaged Populations. Education and Urban Society, 29(3), May 1997, pp. 296-316.
Aggregation and the Estimated Effects of School Resources. (with Steven G. Rivkin and Lori L. Taylor) . Review of Economics and Statistics, 78(4), December 1996, pp. 611-627.
A More Complete Picture of School Resource Policies. Review of Educational Research, 66(3), Fall 1996, pp. 397-409.
Measuring Investment in Education. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 10(4), Fall 1996, pp. 9-30.
Interpreting Recent Research on Schooling in Developing Countries. World Bank Research Observer, 10(2), August 1995, pp. 227-246.
Outcomes, Costs, and Incentives in Schools. In Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy, National Research Council, Improving the Performance of America’s Schools, Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1995, pp. 28-51.
The Quest for Equalized Mediocrity: School Finance Reform without Consideration of School Performance. In Lawrence O. Picus and James L. Wattenbarger (ed.), Where Does the Money Go? Resource Allocation in Elementary and Secondary Schools, Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 1996, pp. 20-43.
A Jaundiced View of "Adequacy" in School Finance Reform. Educational Policy, 8(4), December 1994, pp. 460-69.
The Causes and Consequences of Grade Repetition: Evidence from Brazil. (with João Batista Gomes-Neto) . Economic Development and Cultural Change, 43(1), October 1994, pp. 117-148.
Education Production Functions. In Torsten Husén and T. Neville Postlethwaite (ed.), International Encyclopedia of Education, 2nd Edition, Volume 3, Oxford: Pergamon, 1994, pp. 1756-1762.
Improving Educational Outcomes While Controlling Costs. (with Steven G. Rivkin and Dean T. Jamison) . Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy 37, December 1992, pp. 205-238.
Reforming Educational Reform. (with John E. Chubb). In Henry Aaron (ed.). Setting National Priorities , Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1990, pp. 213-247.
The Impact of Differential Expenditures on School Performance. Educational Researcher, 18(4), May 1989, pp. 45-51.
Improving Educational Efficiency in Developing Countries: What Do We Know?. (with Marlaine E. Lockheed). Compare, 18(1), 1988, pp. 21-37.
The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools. Journal of Economic Literature, 49(3), September 1986, pp. 1141-1177.