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Format: 2020

General Audience Articles

Science Violated: Spending Projections and the "Costing Out" of an Adequate Education. in Eric A. Hanushek (ed.) . Courting Failure: How School Finance Lawsuits Exploit Judges' Good Intentions and Harm Our Children, Stanford, CA: Education Next Books, 2006, pp. 257-311.
Outcomes, Incentives, and Beliefs: Reflections on Analysis of the Economics of Schools. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19(4), Winter 1997, pp. 301-308.
The Policy Research Markets. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 9(2), Spring 1990, pp. 147-154.


Bringing Educational Measurement into the Age of Newton. (with C. Eugene Steuerle and Robert H. Meyer). Policy Bites, The Urban Institute, October 1991.

Working Papers

Addressing Cross-National Generalizability in Educational Impact Evaluation. NBER Working Paper No. 25460, National Bureau of Economic Research, January 2019.


Modern Political Economy: Old Topics, New Directions. (co-editor with Jeffrey S. Banks). New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995, 283 pages.
Statistical Methods for Social Scientists. (with John E. Jackson). New York: Academic Press, 1977, 374 pages.

Academic Articles

Do Better Schools Lead to More Growth? Cognitive Skills, Economic Outcomes, and Causation . (with Ludger Woessmann). Journal of Economic Growth, 17(4), December 2012, pp. 267-321.
A flawed analysis of unrepresentative state achievement data. Educational Policy, 26(3), May 2012, pp. 360-368.
Sample Selectivity and the Validity of International Student Achievement Tests in Economic Research. (with Ludger Woessmann) . Economics Letters, 110(2), February 2011, pp. 79-82.
What Do Cost Functions Tell Us About the Cost of an Adequate Education?. (with Robert Costrell and Susanna Loeb) . Peabody Journal of Education, 83(2), 2008, pp. 198-223.
What If There Are No 'Best Practices'?. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 51(2), May 2004, pp. 156-172.
Does Peer Ability Affect Student Achievement?. (with John F. Kain, Jacob M. Markman, and Steven G. Rivkin). Journal of Applied Econometrics, 18(5), October 2003, pp. 527-544.
Aggregation and the Estimated Effects of School Resources. (with Steven G. Rivkin and Lori L. Taylor) . Review of Economics and Statistics, 78(4), December 1996, pp. 611-627.
Estimating the Effects of Proposed Legislation: The Case for Model Validation. (with Constance F. Citro). Chance, 7(2), 1994, pp. 31-40.
Alternative Assessments of the Performance of Schools: Measurement of State Variations in Achievement. (with Lori L. Taylor) . The Journal of Human Resources, 25(2), Spring 1990, pp. 179-201.
Social Science Research and Policy: A Review Essay. Journal of Human Resources, Spring 1990, pp. 46-51.
Formula Budgeting: The Economics and Analytics of Fiscal Policy under Rules. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 6(1), Fall 1986, pp. 3-19.
Education Policy Research-An Industry Perspective. Economics of Education Review, 1(2), 1981, pp. 193-224.
Conceptual and Empirical Issues in the Estimation of Educational Production Functions. The Journal of Human Resources, 14(3), Summer 1979, pp. 351-388.