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Format: 2019

General Audience Articles

The Achievement Gap Fails to Close: Half Century of testing shows persistent divide between haves and have-nots. (with Paul E. Peterson, Laura M. Talpey, and Ludger Woessmann). Education Next, 19(3), Summer 2019.
Achievement Gap. In Denis C. Phillips (ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy, Los Angeles: SAGE Reference, 2014, pp, 4-7.
How well do we understand achievement gaps?. Focus, 27(2), Winter 2010, pp. 5-12.


US achievement gaps hold steady in the face of substantial policy initiatives. (with Paul E. Peterson, Laura M. Talpey, and Ludger Woessmann). VOX, April 15, 2015.

Working Papers

The Unwavering SES Achievement Gap: Trends in U.S. Student Performance. (with Paul E. Peterson, Laura M. Talpey, and Ludger Woessmann). NBER Working Paper No. 25648, National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2019.


Schoolhouses, Courthouses, and Statehouses: Solving the Funding-Achievement Puzzle in America's Public Schools. (with Alfred A. Lindseth). Princeton University Press, 2009, 432 pages.
Educational Performance of the Poor: Lessons from Rural Northeast Brazil. (with Ralph W. Harbison). New York: Oxford University Press, 1992, 362 pages.
Education and Race: An Analysis of the Educational Production Process. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath, 1972, 176 pages.

Academic Articles

Education and the Growth-Equity Trade-off. In Charles Hulten and Valerie Ramey (ed.), Education, Skills and Technical Change: Implications for Future U.S. GDP Growth, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2019, pp. 293-312.
Is Location Fate? Distributional Aspects of Schooling. In Gregory K. Ingram and Daphne A. Kenyon (ed.), Education, Land, and Location, Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2014, pp. 25-61.
Does Pollution Increase School Absences?. (with Janet Currie, E. Megan Kahn, Matthew Neidell, and Steve G. Rivkin) . Review of Economics and Statistics, 91(4), November 2009, pp. 683-694.
New Evidence about Brown v. Board of Education: The Complex Effects of School Racial Composition on Achievement. (with John F. Kain and Steven G. Rivkin) . Journal of Labor Economics, 27(3), July 2009, pp. 349-383.
Harming the Best: How Schools Affect the Black-White Achievement Gap. (with Steven G. Rivkin) . Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 29(3), Summer 2009, pp. 366-393.
Getting Down to Facts: School Finance and Governance in California. (with Susanna Loeb and Anthony Bryk) . Education Finance and Policy, 3(1), Winter 2008, pp. 1-19.
What Do Cost Functions Tell Us About the Cost of an Adequate Education?. (with Robert Costrell and Susanna Loeb) . Peabody Journal of Education, 83(2), 2008, pp. 198-223.
Some U.S. Evidence on how the Distribution of Educational Outcomes can be Changed. In Ludger Woessmann and Paul E. Peterson (ed.), Schools and the Equal Opportunity Problem, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007, pp. 159-190.
Charter School Quality and Parental Decision Making with School Choice. (with John F. Kain, Steven G. Rivkin, and Gregory F. Branch) . Journal of Public Economics, 91(5-6), June 2007, pp. 823-848.
Does Educational Tracking Affect Performance and Inequality? Differences-in-Differences Evidence across Countries. (with Ludger Woessmann) . The Economic Journal, 116(150), March 2006, pp. C63-C76.