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Format: 2022

General Audience Articles

Science Violated: Spending Projections and the "Costing Out" of an Adequate Education. in Eric A. Hanushek (ed.) . Courting Failure: How School Finance Lawsuits Exploit Judges' Good Intentions and Harm Our Children, Stanford, CA: Education Next Books, 2006, pp. 257-311.
Outcomes, Incentives, and Beliefs: Reflections on Analysis of the Economics of Schools. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19(4), Winter 1997, pp. 301-308.
The Policy Research Markets. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 9(2), Spring 1990, pp. 147-154.


Bringing Educational Measurement into the Age of Newton. (with C. Eugene Steuerle and Robert H. Meyer). Policy Bites, The Urban Institute, October 1991.

Working Papers

The Economic Impacts of Learning Losses. (with Ludger Woessmann). OECD Education Working Paper No. 225, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, September 2020.
Culture and Student Achievement: The Intertwined Roles of Patience and Risk-Taking. (with Lavinia Kinne, Philipp Lergetporer, and Ludger Woessmann). NBER Working Paper No. 27484, National Bureau of Economic Research, July 2020.
Addressing Cross-National Generalizability in Educational Impact Evaluation. NBER Working Paper No. 25460, National Bureau of Economic Research, January 2019.


Modern Political Economy: Old Topics, New Directions. (co-editor with Jeffrey S. Banks). New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995, 283 pages.
Statistical Methods for Social Scientists. (with John E. Jackson). New York: Academic Press, 1977, 374 pages.

Academic Articles

Patience, Risk-Taking, and Human Capital Investment across Countries. (with Lavinia Kinne, Philipp Lergetporer, and Ludger Woessmann). Economic Journal, 132 (646), 2022, pp. 2290-2307.
Addressing Cross-national Generalizability in Educational Impact Evaluation. International Journal of Educational Development, 80, 2021.
Do Better Schools Lead to More Growth? Cognitive Skills, Economic Outcomes, and Causation . (with Ludger Woessmann). Journal of Economic Growth, 17(4), December 2012, pp. 267-321.
A flawed analysis of unrepresentative state achievement data. Educational Policy, 26(3), May 2012, pp. 360-368.
Sample Selectivity and the Validity of International Student Achievement Tests in Economic Research. (with Ludger Woessmann) . Economics Letters, 110(2), February 2011, pp. 79-82.
What Do Cost Functions Tell Us About the Cost of an Adequate Education?. (with Robert Costrell and Susanna Loeb) . Peabody Journal of Education, 83(2), 2008, pp. 198-223.
What If There Are No 'Best Practices'?. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 51(2), May 2004, pp. 156-172.
Does Peer Ability Affect Student Achievement?. (with John F. Kain, Jacob M. Markman, and Steven G. Rivkin). Journal of Applied Econometrics, 18(5), October 2003, pp. 527-544.
Aggregation and the Estimated Effects of School Resources. (with Steven G. Rivkin and Lori L. Taylor) . Review of Economics and Statistics, 78(4), December 1996, pp. 611-627.
Estimating the Effects of Proposed Legislation: The Case for Model Validation. (with Constance F. Citro). Chance, 7(2), 1994, pp. 31-40.
Alternative Assessments of the Performance of Schools: Measurement of State Variations in Achievement. (with Lori L. Taylor) . The Journal of Human Resources, 25(2), Spring 1990, pp. 179-201.