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Format: 2022

General Audience Articles

Test-Based Accountability in Distressed Times. (with Chester E. Finn Jr.). The State Education Standard, September 20(3), 2020, pp. 13-17.
An Evidence-Based World. In Koret Task Force, American Education in 2030: An Assessment by Hoover Institution’s Koret Task Force on K–12 Education, Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution, 2010.
Why the Federal Government Should Be Involved in School Accountability. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 24(1), Winter 2005, pp. 168-172.
Shopping for Evidence Against School Accountability. (with Margaret E. Raymond). In William J. Fowler, Jr. (ed.). Developments in School Finance: 2003, (Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics), 2004, pp. 119-130.
High Stakes Research. (with Margaret E. Raymond) . Education Next, 3(3), Summer 2003, pp. 48-55.
Sorting out accountability systems. (with Margaret E. Raymond). In Williamson M. Evers, Herbert J. Walberg (Eds.). School Accountability, 2002, pp. 75-104.


Testing with accountability improves student achievement. (with Annika B. Bergbauer and Ludger Woessmann). VoxEU, September 19, 2018.
Building on No Child Left Behind. Science, 326, November 2009, pp. 802-803.

Working Papers

Testing. (with Annika B. Bergbauer and Ludger Woessmann). NBER Working Paper No. 24836 (revised), National Bureau of Economic Research, July 2018 (revised November 2019).
Imperfect Performance Information and Public Sector Personnel Decisions : The Case of School Principals. (with Julie Berry Cullen, Gregory Phelan, and Steven G. Rivkin) . NBER Working Paper No. 22881, December 2016.


Schoolhouses, Courthouses, and Statehouses: Solving the Funding-Achievement Puzzle in America's Public Schools. (with Alfred A. Lindseth). Princeton University Press, 2009, 432 pages.
Making Schools Work: Improving Performance and Controlling Costs. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1994, 200 pages.

Academic Articles

Testing. (with Annika B. Bergbauer and Ludger Woessmann). Journal of Human Resources, forthcoming.
Testing, Accountability and the American Economy. ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 683, May 2019, 110-128.
A flawed analysis of unrepresentative state achievement data. Educational Policy, 26(3), May 2012, pp. 360-368.
The Quality and Distribution of Teachers under the No Child Left Behind Act. (with Steven G. Rivkin) . Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24(3), Summer 2010, pp. 133-150.
Early Returns from School Accountability. (with Margaret E. Raymond). in Paul E. Peterson (ed.). Generational Change: Closing the Test Score Gap, Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2006, pp. 143-166.
School Accountability and Student Performance. (with Margaret E. Raymond). Regional Economic Development, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, 2(1) , March 2006, pp. 51-61.
Does School Accountability Lead to Improved Student Performance?. (with Margaret E. Raymond) . Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 24(2), Spring 2005, pp. 298-327.