United States: The Uphill Schools’ Struggle

Eric A. Hanushek
Nuno Crato (Ed.)
Published Date
Improving a Country’s Education: PISA 2018 Results in 10 Countries
Cham, Switzerland: Springer
pp. 227-247
The United States has seen generally flat performance on both international and national tests. Moreover, the achievement gaps between disadvantaged and more advantaged students have been large and constant for a half century. The remarkable aspect of these outcomes is that federal and state programs have changed significantly—considerably greater resources, added school choice, test-based accountability, and school desegregation. Because of the importance of skills for the economy, it is important that the schools improve, but there is no indication of finding the set of policies that will do this.