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Format: 2021


Teach the World: Why the UN Sustainable Development Goals Should Focus on Education. (With Ludger Woessmann). Foreign Affairs, August 20, 2015.
Don’t Get Lost – Focus on Quality. NORRAG News, 48, April 2013, pp. 22-23.
Poor student learning explains the Latin American growth puzzle. (with Ludger Woessmann). Vox, August 14, 2009.

Working Papers

The Economic Impacts of Learning Losses. (with Ludger Woessmann). OECD Education Working Paper No. 225, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, September 2020.
Culture and Student Achievement: The Intertwined Roles of Patience and Risk-Taking. (with Lavinia Kinne, Philipp Lergetporer, and Ludger Woessmann). NBER Working Paper No. 27484, National Bureau of Economic Research, July 2020.
Can Greater Access to Education Be Inequitable? New Evidence from India’s Right to Education Act. (with Chirantan Chatterjee and Shreekanth Mahendiran). NBER Working Paper No. 27377, National Bureau of Economic Research, June 2020.
Employer Learning and the Dynamics of Returns to Universities: Evidence from Chinese Elite Education during University Expansion. (with Sylvie Démurger and Lei Zhang). NBER Working Paper No. 25955, National Bureau of Economic Research, Revised May 2020.
Addressing Cross-National Generalizability in Educational Impact Evaluation. NBER Working Paper No. 25460, National Bureau of Economic Research, January 2019.


The Knowledge Capital of Nations: Education and the Economics of Growth. (with Ludger Woessmann). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2015, 262 pages.
Universal Basic Skills: What countries stand to gain. (with Ludger Woessmann). Paris: OECD Publishing, 2015, 110 pages.
Endangering Prosperity: A Global View of the American School. (with Paul E. Peterson and Ludger Woessmann). Washington, DC: Brookings Press, 2013, 147 pages.
Educational Performance of the Poor: Lessons from Rural Northeast Brazil. (with Ralph W. Harbison). New York: Oxford University Press, 1992, 362 pages.

Academic Articles

United States: The Uphill Schools’ Struggle. In Nuno Crato (ed.), Improving a Country’s Education: PISA 2018 Results in 10 Countries, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2021, pp. 227-247.
Quality Education and Economic Development. In Brajesh Panth and Rupert Maclean (ed.), Anticipating and Preparing for Emerging Skills and Jobs: Key Issues, Concerns, and Prospects, Singapore: Springer, 2020, pp. 25-32.
The Value of Smarter Teachers: International Evidence on Teacher Cognitive Skills and Student Performance. (with Marc Piopiunik and Simon Wiederhold). Journal of Human Resources, 54(4), Fall 2019, pp. 857-899.
Coping with Change: International Differences in the Returns to Skills. (with Guido Schwerdt, Simon Wiederhold, and Ludger Woessmann) . Economic Letters, 153, April 2017, pp. 15-19.
School Resources and Student Achievement: A Review of Cross-Country Economic Research. (with Ludger Woessmann). In Monica Rosén, Kajsa Yang Hansen, and Ulrika Wolff (ed.). Cognitive Abilities and Educational Outcomes: A Festschrift in Honour of Jan-Eric Gustafsson, Springer, 2017, pp. 149-171.