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Format: 2023

General Audience Articles

Test-Based Accountability in Distressed Times. (with Chester E. Finn Jr.). The State Education Standard, September 20(3), 2020, pp. 13-17.
An Evidence-Based World. In Koret Task Force, American Education in 2030: An Assessment by Hoover Institution’s Koret Task Force on K–12 Education, Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution, 2010.
Why the Federal Government Should Be Involved in School Accountability. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 24(1), Winter 2005, pp. 168-172.
Shopping for Evidence Against School Accountability. (with Margaret E. Raymond). In William J. Fowler, Jr. (ed.). Developments in School Finance: 2003, (Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics), 2004, pp. 119-130.
High Stakes Research. (with Margaret E. Raymond) . Education Next, 3(3), Summer 2003, pp. 48-55.
Sorting out accountability systems. (with Margaret E. Raymond). In Williamson M. Evers, Herbert J. Walberg (Eds.). School Accountability, 2002, pp. 75-104.


Testing with accountability improves student achievement. (with Annika B. Bergbauer and Ludger Woessmann). VoxEU, September 18, 2018.
Testing with accountability improves student achievement. (with Annika B. Bergbauer and Ludger Woessmann). VoxEU, September 18, 2018.
Building on No Child Left Behind. Science, 326, November 2009, pp. 802-803.

Working Papers

The Effects of Comprehensive Educator Evaluation and Pay Reform on Achievement. (with Jin Luo, Andrew Morgan, Minh Nguyen, Ben Ost, and Steven G. Rivkin, Ayman Shakeel). NBER Working Paper No. 31073, National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2023.
Testing. (with Annika B. Bergbauer and Ludger Woessmann). NBER Working Paper No. 24836 (revised), National Bureau of Economic Research, July 2018 (revised November 2019).
Imperfect Performance Information and Public Sector Personnel Decisions : The Case of School Principals. (with Julie Berry Cullen, Gregory Phelan, and Steven G. Rivkin) . NBER Working Paper No. 22881, December 2016.


Schoolhouses, Courthouses, and Statehouses: Solving the Funding-Achievement Puzzle in America's Public Schools. (with Alfred A. Lindseth). Princeton University Press, 2009, 432 pages.
Making Schools Work: Improving Performance and Controlling Costs. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1994, 200 pages.

Academic Articles

Some Evolving Issues in K–12 Education. In Michael J. Boskin (ed.), American Federalism Today: Perspectives on Political and Economic Governance, Stanford, CA: Hoover Press, 2024.
Testing. (with Annika B. Bergbauer and Ludger Woessmann). Journal of Human Resources, 59(2), March, 2024, 349-388.
Testing, Accountability and the American Economy. ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 683, May 2019, 110-128.
A flawed analysis of unrepresentative state achievement data. Educational Policy, 26(3), May 2012, pp. 360-368.
The Quality and Distribution of Teachers under the No Child Left Behind Act. (with Steven G. Rivkin) . Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24(3), Summer 2010, pp. 133-150.