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Growth/Economic Impact

Format: 2021


Every State’s Economic Future Lies with School Reform. AEI Report, American Enterprise Institute, May 2018.
Student Achievement and Every State's Economic Future. Real Clear Education, April 29, 2016.
Teach the World: Why the UN Sustainable Development Goals Should Focus on Education. (With Ludger Woessmann). Foreign Affairs, August 20, 2015.
The Economic Relevance of Early Childhood Development. In Jörg F. Maas, Simone C. Ehmig, Carolin Seelmann (Ed.), Prepare for Life! Raising Awareness for Early Literacy Education, Stiftung Lesen, Mainz, DE, 2014, pp. 249-253.
Poor student learning explains the Latin American growth puzzle. (with Ludger Woessmann). Vox, August 14, 2009.
Education Quality for Economic Development. Conferencia Internatcional Educação e Desenvolvimento Escola e Sociede, Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, September 2016, pp. 23-32.

Working Papers

The Economic Impacts of Learning Losses. (with Ludger Woessmann). OECD Education Working Paper No. 225, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, September 2020.


The Knowledge Capital of Nations: Education and the Economics of Growth. (with Ludger Woessmann). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2015, 262 pages.
Universal Basic Skills: What countries stand to gain. (with Ludger Woessmann). Paris: OECD Publishing, 2015, 110 pages.
Endangering Prosperity: A Global View of the American School. (with Paul E. Peterson and Ludger Woessmann). Washington, DC: Brookings Press, 2013, 147 pages.

Academic Articles

Education and Economic Growth. (with Ludger Woessmann).. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Economics and Finance, Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming.
Addressing Cross-national Generalizability in Educational Impact Evaluation. International Journal of Educational Development, 80, 2021.
United States: The Uphill Schools’ Struggle. In Nuno Crato (ed.), Improving a Country’s Education: PISA 2018 Results in 10 Countries, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2021, pp. 227-247.
A quantitative look at the economic impact of the European Union’s educational goals. (with Ludger Woessmann). Education Economics, 28(3), 2020, 225-244.
Education, Knowledge Capital, and Economic Growth. (with Ludger Woessmann). In Steve Bradley and Colin Green (ed.). Economics of Education, 2nd Edition, London: Academic Press, 2020, pp. 171-182.
Quality Education and Economic Development. In Brajesh Panth and Rupert Maclean (ed.), Anticipating and Preparing for Emerging Skills and Jobs: Key Issues, Concerns, and Prospects, Singapore: Springer, 2020, pp. 25-32.
Knowledge Capital and Economic Growth. (with Ludger Woessmann). In Rolf Becker (ed.). Research Handbook on the Sociology of Education, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2019, pp. 476-497.
Volkswirtschaftliche Folgen von Bildungsarmut: Was ein Entwicklungsziel „Grundkompetenzen für alle“ erreichen könnte. (with Ludger Woessmann). In Gudrun Quenzel and Klaus Hurrelmann (ed.). Handbuch Bildungsarmut, Springer VS, 2019, pp. 547-554.
Education and the Growth-Equity Trade-off. In Charles Hulten and Valerie Ramey (ed.), Education, Skills and Technical Change: Implications for Future U.S. GDP Growth, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2019, pp. 293-312.